The mining sector is a vital part of Mongolia’s economy and there is a need to conduct economic research on the legal and regulatory environments encountered by mining companies. Through research, Mongolia can be better identify future outcomes and their effects. These include: resource rent allocation, the payoff between economic benefits and social and environmental effects, mining sector stability, rural employment and outsourcing, artisanal mining regulation, transparent and reliable legislation, judicial implementation, and anti-corruption legislation. This study looked at the trade-off of complying with public interests amidst conflicting legislation and regulations. Moreover, the research focused on whether Mongolia’s current legal environment was too strict or not and if new technologies allow companies to work without having adverse social and environmental effects.